Selected Bibliography


Experiments with the Graph Traverser Program, in Proceedings of the Royal Society, 294, 1966, 235-259.

A digital computer analysis of palaeolithic flint assemblages, in Nature, 210, 1966, 688-689 (with  F.R. Hodson).

Some experiments in the numerical analysis of archaeological data, in Biometrika, 53, 3-4, 1966, 311-324 (with F.R. Hodson, P.H.A. Sneath).


Archaeological reasoning and machine reasoning, in J.-C. Gardin (ed.), Archéologie et calculateurs: problèmes sémiologiques et mathématiques. Actes du Colloque international (Marseille 1969), Paris 1970, Editions du CNRS, 57-67.

Systems theory, computer simulations and archaeology, in World Archaeology, 1, 3, 1970, 289-298.

Computer analysis of data from the La Tène Cemetery at Münsingen-Rain, in F.R. Hodson, D.G. Kendall, P. Tautu (eds.), Mathematics in the Archaeological and Historical Sciences. Proceedings of the Anglo-Romanian Conference (Mamaia 1970), Edinburgh 1971, Edinburgh University Press, 422-431.

Automatic generation and evaluation of explanatory hypotheses, in M. Borillo (ed.), Les méthodes mathématiques de l’archéologie (Marseille 1971), Marseille 1972, Editions du CNRS, 200-211.

Computer models as tools for archaeological hypothesis formation, in D.L. Clarke (ed.), Models in Archaeology, London 1972, Methuen, 425-451.

Prehistory, explanatory hypotheses and the computer, Atlas Computer Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Berkshire, 1972, 71-74.

Solving a combinatorial problem encountered in archaeology, Atlas Computer Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Berkshire, 1972, 47-52 (with S. Powell).

Explanation in archaeology. A computer experiment, in C. Refrew (ed.), The Explanation of Culture Change. Models in Prehistory, London 1973, Duckworth, 149-153.

What computers can’t do for archaeologists, in J.D. Wilcock, S. Laflin (eds.), Computer Applications in Archaeology 1974, University of Birmingham Computer Centre, Birmingham 1974, 69-70.

Mathematics and Computers in Archaeology, Edinburgh 1975, Edinburgh University Press (with F.R. Hodson).

Complex process models and the understanding of prehistory change, in S. Laflin (ed.), Computer Applications in Archaeology 1976, Birmingham 1976, University of Birmingham Computer Centre, 21-25.

Representation of knowledge for computer interpretation of pre-historic cemetery data, in M. Borillo, L. Bourrelly, Colloque 4, Banques de données et méthodes formelles en archéologie préhistorique et protohistorique. IXe Congrès de l'UISPP (Nice 1976), 80-106.

Knowledge representation for archaeological inference, in W. Elcock, D. Michie (eds.), Machine Intelligence, 8, Chichester 1977, Ellis Horwood, 433-454.

Fitting models and studying process. Some comments on the role of computer simulation in archaeology, in Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology, 16, 1979, 81-93.


Multi-actor systems and the Maya collapse, in G.L. Cowgill, R. Whallon, B.S. Ottaway (eds.), Coloquio Manejo de Datos y Métodos Matematicos de Arqueología, X UISPP Congress (Mexico City 1981), Preprints 191-200.

A computational model of sociocultural systems and their dynamics, in C. Renfrew, M.J. Rowlands, B.A. Segraves (eds.), Theory and Explanation in Archaeology, New York 1982, Academic Press, 375-388.

A computer model of production exchange and trade, in A. Voorrips, S. Loving (eds.), To Pattern the Past, PACT, 11, 1985, 349-359 (with G. Corcoran).

A contract-structure model of sociocultural change, in S. Laflin (ed.), Computer Applications in Archaeology 1986, Birmingham 1986, University of Birmingham Computer Centre, 171-178

Formal methods and archaeological theory: A perspective, in World Archaeology, 18, 1, 1986, 21-37.

Anthropological archaeology, computational modelling, and expert systems, in M.S. Aldenderfer (ed.), Quantitative Research in Archaeology: Progress and Prospects, London 1987, Sage Publications 73-88.

Expert systems and archaeology: what lies ahead?, in C.L.N. Ruggles, S.P.Q. Rahtz (eds.), Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 1987, Oxford 1988, BAR International Series 393, 235-241.

Distributed AI based modelling of the emergence of social complexity, in J. Wilcock (ed.), Computer Archaeology. Papers Presented at the Dynamic Text Conference (Toronto 1989), in Science and Archaeology, 31, 1989, 3-11.

Distributed Artificial Intelligence and the modelling of socio-cultural systems, in L. Murray, J. Richardson (eds.), Intelligent Systems in a Human Context: Development, Implications, Applications, Oxford 1989, Oxford University Press, 71-91.


Computer-based simulation and formal modelling in archaeology: A review, in A. Voorrips (ed.), Mathematics and Information Science in Archaeology: A Flexible Framework, Studies in Modern Archaeology, 3, Bonn, Holos Verlag, 1990, 93-114.

Using Distributed AI to study the emergence of human social organisation, in Computer Science Memorandum, 154, Department of Computer Science, University of Essex, 1990.

A computational investigation of three models of specialization, exchange and social complexity, in J.-C. Gardin, C. Peebles (eds.), Representations in Archaeology, Bloomington-Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1992, 315-329.

Contrasting models of Upper Palaeolithic social dynamics: A distributed Artificial Intelligence approach, in J. Andresen, T. Madsen, I. Scollar (eds.), Computing the Past. Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 1992, Aarhus, Aarhus University Press, 1993, 251-262 (with M. Palmer).

Modelling cultural systems, in F. Djindjian, H. Ducasse (eds.), Data Processing and Mathematics Applied to Archaeology - Mathématiques et Informatique appliquées à l’archéologie, in PACT, 16, 1987 [1992], 447-455.

Modelling collective belief and misbelieve, in M. Keaneet al. (eds.), AI and Cognitive Science ‘94, Dublin, Dublin University Press, 1994.

Modelling early human societies, in AISB Quarterly, 90, 1994-95, 31-33.

Simulating Societies: The Computer Simulation of Social Phenomena, London, UCL Press 1994 (with N. Gilbert).

The EOS Project: Modelling Upper Palaeolithic social change, in N. Gilbert, J.E. Doran (eds.), Simulating Societies, London, UCL Press, 1994, 195-221 (with M. Palmer, G.N. Gilbert, P. Mellars).

The EOS Project: Integrating two models of Palaeolithic social change, in N. Gilbert, R. Conte (eds.), Artificial Societies: The Computer Simulation of Social Life, London 1995, UCL Press, 86-105 (with M. Palmer).

The EOS Project: Modelling prehistoric sociocultural trajectories, in I. Pujana, L. Valdés, I. Arenal (eds.), Aplicaciones Informáticas en Arqueología: Teorías y sistemas (Saint-Germain-en-Laye 1991), I, Bilbao 1995, Denboraren Argía, 183-198 (with M. Palmer).

Simulating prehistoric societies: Why? and How?, in I. Pujana, L. Valdés, I. Arenal (eds.), Aplicaciones Informáticas en Arqueología: Teorías y sistemas (Bilbao 1993), II, Bilbao 1995, Denboraren Argía, 40-55.

Simulating societies using distributed Artificial Intelligence, in K.G. Troitzsch, U. Mueller, G.N. Gilbert, J.E. Doran (eds.), Social Science Microsimulation, Berlin 1996, Springer, 381-393.

Artificial societies and cognitive archaeology, in P. Moscati (ed.), III International Symposium on Computing and Archaeology (Roma 1995), in Archeologia e Calcolatori, 7, 1996, 1231-1245.

Distributed Artificial Intelligence and emergent social complexity, in S.E. van de Leeuw, J. McGlade (eds.), Time, Process and Structured Transformation in Archaeology, London-New York 1997, Routledge, 283-297.

From computer simulation to artificial societies, in Transactions SCS, 14, 2, 1997, 69-77.

Simulating collective misbelief, in Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 1, 1, 1998.

Social simulation, agents and artificial societies, in Y. Demazeau, Y. (ed.), Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems ICMAS’98 (Paris 1998), Washington: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1998, 4-5.

Prospects for agent-based modelling in archaeology, in Archeologia e Calcolatori, 10, 1999, 33-44.


The archaeology of artificial societies, in Proceedings of the AISB’00 Symposium on Starting from Society. The Application of Social Analogies to Computational Systems (Birmingham 2000), AISB, 15-21.

Questions in the methodology of artificial societies, in R. Suleiman, K.G. Troitsch, G.N. Gilbert (eds.), Tools and Techniques for Social Science Simulation, in Physica-Verlag, 2000, 17-25.

La simulazione delle false credenze collettive, in Sistemi intelligenti, 2, 2000, 223-236.

Trajectories to complexity in artificial societies: Rationality, belief, and emotions, in T. Kohler, G. Gummerman (eds.), Dynamics in Human and Primate Societies: Agent-Based Modeling of Social and Spatial Processes, Oxford-New York 2000, Oxford University Press, 89-105.

S. Kohring, S. Wynne-Jones, (eds.), Socialising Complexity: Approaches to Power and Interaction in Archaeological Discourse, Oxford 2007, Oxbow Books and T.A. Kohler, S.E. van der Leeuw (eds.), The Model-Based Archaeology of Socionatural Systems,  Santa Fe, New Mexico 2010, in JASS, 11, 2008.

A. Costopoulos, M.W. Lake (eds.), Simulating Change: Archaeology into the Twenty-First Century (Foundations of Archaeological Inquiry), Salt Lake City, UT 2010, University of Utah Press, in JASS, 14, 2011.

Foreword, in J.A. Barceló, I. Bogdanovic (eds.), Mathematics and Archaeology, New York 2015, CRC Press, V-VII.